Oral antibiotics are prescribed to minimise risk of infection post-procedure, or when it is indicated for mild skin infections. Antibiotics prescribed for acne are used to control C. acnes(formerly P. acnes), which is the bacteria typically implicated in the formation of acne. Judicious use of antibiotics is important to minimise the likelihood of antibiotic resistance, through means such asappropriate antibiotic selection and avoiding unnecessary long-term use.
Antihistamines help to minimise mild skin irritation, redness, or itching which may be experienced following certain procedures.
Isotretinoin (common brands: Roaccutane, Acnotin) is a potent oral retinoid. Similar to topical retinoids, isotretinoin works by regulating skin cell turnover, reducing sebum production, and reducing bacteria-mediated immune response and inflammation. It is used to treat severe acne that has not responded to other acne treatments. Due to the systemic absorption and potential for side effects, baseline blood tests and continued monitoring while on isotretinoin may be recommended. Strict birth control is also mandatory in women of child-bearing age due to a high associated risk of birth defects when taking the medication.
Oral tranexamic acid (TXA) is a safe and efficacious treatment for refractory melasma. It is often used as an adjunct treatment for hyperpigmentation. It is also easy to administer with few and mild side effects. Studies have shown that TXA , when used in doses intended to treat hyperpigmentation, does not increase the thromboembolic risk. Nevertheless, patients should still be screened carefully for contraindications and risk factors prior to commencement of the therapy.